May 082013

College Students with Learning Disabilities

College Students with Learning Disabilities

SO your child has made it through high school! It’s awesome when our kids are supported well enough (as they SHOULD BE) to make it to college. However, that doesn’t mean making it to college will enable your child to make it through college.

Whether your child has ADHD, dyslexia, Asperger’s, or any other disability, college students with learning disabilities usually need support to succeed. You can make sure your child gets the help he needs.

It’s good to start by insuring your child has a current comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. Having a current evaluation allows college students with learning disabilities to apply for accommodations.

That leads to the second thing you can help your child with. Direct your child to the disabilities office specifically for College Students with Learning Disabilities. Once your child has the contact information, he can apply for accommodations. As soon as your child decides on his college and accepts enrollment, he should get started on the accommodations application process.

Informing your child of his right to equal access to the curriculum and his right to have aids and services is important. The information below will help you understand Aids & Services for College Students with Learning Disabilities.

Lastly, Make sure you support and encourage your child, especially during the first year of college. Starting college can be difficult for college students with learning disabilities. It is easy for them to get overwhelmed because there is so much new information to process. There are new procedures to follow, new terminology, new people and new places.

It’s not uncommon for a college student with learning disabilities to head off to college with a “can do” attitude only to have that turn into frustration, uncertainty, and depression about four to eight weeks into the semester. We found it is good to call your college student with learning disabilities about once every two weeks initially.

If or when your child reaches a point where he sounds discouraged, shift to calling weekly until your child feels more confident again. By the second year of college, talking every two or three weeks can suffice, but each college student with learning disabilities is different. If your child needs or wants to talk to you more often, by all means, call! Uplifting support is the key to surviving those first few difficult months.

Higher Education’s Obligations Under Section 504 and Title II of the ADA (applies to college students with learning disabilities).

adhd and college

U.S. Department of Education
Office for Civil Rights
Washington, D.C.

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973

In 1973, Congress passed Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504), a law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of physical or mental disability (29 U.S.C. Section 794). It states:

No otherwise qualified individual with a disability in the United States . . . shall, solely by reason of her or his disability, be excluded from the participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance . . . .

The Office for Civil Rights in the U.S. Department of Education enforces regulations implementing Section 504 with respect to programs and activities that receive funding from the Department. The Section 504 regulation applies to all recipients of this funding, including colleges, universities, and postsecondary vocational education and adult education programs. Failure by these higher education schools to provide auxiliary aids to students with disabilities that results in a denial of a program benefit is discriminatory and prohibited by Section 504. (This pertains to college students with learning disabilities too.)

Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) prohibits state and local governments from discriminating on the basis of disability. The Department enforces Title II in public colleges, universities, and graduate and professional schools. The requirements regarding the provision of auxiliary aids and services in higher education institutions described in the Section 504 regulation are generally included in the general nondiscrimination provisions of the Title II regulation.

Postsecondary School Provision of Auxiliary Aids

The Section 504 regulation contains the following requirement relating to a postsecondary school’s obligation to provide auxiliary aids to qualified college students with learning disabilities:

A recipient . . . shall take such steps as are necessary to ensure that no handicapped student is denied the benefits of, excluded from participation in, or otherwise subjected to discrimination under the education program or activity operated by the recipient because of the absence of educational auxiliary aids for students with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills.

The Title II regulation states:

A public entity shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids and services where necessary to afford an individual with a disability an equal opportunity to participate in, and enjoy the benefits of, a service, program, or activity conducted by a public entity.

It is, therefore, the school’s responsibility to provide these auxiliary aids and services in a timely manner to ensure effective participation by students with disabilities. If students are being evaluated to determine their eligibility under Section 504 or the ADA, the recipient must provide auxiliary aids in the interim.

college students with learning disabilities Responsibilities

A postsecondary student with a disability who is in need of auxiliary aids is obligated to provide notice of the nature of the disabling condition to the college and to assist it in identifying appropriate and effective auxiliary aids. In elementary and secondary schools, teachers and school specialists may have arranged support services for students with disabilities.

However, in postsecondary schools, the students themselves must identify the need for an auxiliary aid and give adequate notice of the need. The student’s notification should be provided to the appropriate representative of the college who, depending upon the nature and scope of the request, could be the school’s Section 504 or ADA coordinator, an appropriate dean, a faculty advisor, or a professor.

Unlike elementary or secondary schools, colleges may ask the student, in response to a request for auxiliary aids, to provide supporting diagnostic test results and professional prescriptions for auxiliary aids. A college also may obtain its own professional determination of whether specific requested auxiliary aids are necessary.

Examples of Auxiliary Aids for College Students with Learning Disabilities

Some of the various types of auxiliary aids and services for college students with learning disabilities may include:

  • taped texts
  • notetakers
  • interpreters
  • readers
  • videotext displays
  • television enlargers
  • talking calculators
  • electronic, highlighted readers
  • computers or word processors
  • telephone handset amplifiers
  • closed caption decoders
  • open and closed captioning
  • recording of lectures
  • extended time testing
  • calculators or keyboards with large buttons
  • raised-line drawing kits
  • assistive listening devices
  • assistive listening systems
  • audio or electronic textbooks.

Technological advances in electronics have improved vastly participation by college students with learning disabilities in educational activities. Colleges are not required to provide the most sophisticated auxiliary aids available; however, the aids provided must effectively meet the needs of a college student with a disability. An institution has flexibility in choosing the specific aid or service it provides to the student, as long as the aid or service selected is effective. These aids should be selected after consultation with the student who will use them.

Effectiveness of Auxiliary Aids for College Students with Learning Disabilities

No aid or service will be useful unless it is successful in equalizing the opportunity for a particular student with a disability to participate in the education program or activity. Not all students with a similar disability benefit equally from an identical auxiliary aid or service. The regulation refers to this complex issue of effectiveness in several sections, including:

Auxiliary aids may include taped texts, interpreters or other effective methods of making orally delivered materials available to students with hearing impairments, readers in libraries for students with visual impairments, classroom equipment adapted for use by students with manual impairments, and other similar services and actions.

There are other references to effectiveness in the general provisions of the Section 504 regulation which state, in part, that a recipient may not:

Provide a qualified handicapped person with an aid, benefit, or service that is not as effective as that provided to others; or Provide different or separate aid, benefits, or services to handicapped persons or to any class of handicapped persons unless such action is necessary to provide qualified handicapped persons with aid, benefits, or services that are as effective as those provided to others.

The Title II regulation contains comparable provisions.

The Section 504 regulation also states:

[A]ids, benefits, and services, to be equally effective, are not required to produce the identical result or level of achievement for handicapped and nonhandicapped persons, but must afford handicapped persons equal opportunity to obtain the same result, to gain the same benefit, or to reach the same level of achievement, in the most integrated setting appropriate to the person’s needs.

The institution must analyze the appropriateness of an aid or service in its specific context. For example, the type of assistance needed in a classroom by a student who is hearing-impaired may vary, depending upon whether the format is a large lecture hall or a seminar. With the one-way communication of a lecture, the service of a notetaker may be adequate, but in the two-way communication of a seminar, an interpreter may be needed. College officials also should be aware that in determining what types of auxiliary aids and services are necessary under Title II of the ADA, the institution must give primary consideration to the requests of individuals with disabilities.

Cost of Auxiliary Aids for College Students with Learning Disabilities

Postsecondary schools receiving federal financial assistance must provide effective auxiliary aids to college students with learning disabilities. If an aid is necessary for classroom or other appropriate (nonpersonal) use, the institution must make it available, unless provision of the aid would cause undue burden. A student with a disability may not be required to pay part or all of the costs of that aid or service.

An institution may not limit what it spends for auxiliary aids or services or refuse to provide auxiliary aids because it believes that other providers of these services exist, or condition its provision of auxiliary aids on availability of funds. In many cases, an institution may meet its obligation to provide auxiliary aids by assisting the student in obtaining the aid or obtaining reimbursement for the cost of an aid from an outside agency or organization, such as a state rehabilitation agency or a private charitable organization. However, the institution remains responsible for providing the aid.

Personal Aids and Services for College Students with Learning Disabilities

An issue that is often misunderstood by postsecondary officials and students is the provision of personal aids and services. Personal aids and services, including help in personal care, are not required to be provided by postsecondary institutions. The Section 504 regulation states:

Recipients need not provide attendants, individually prescribed devices, readers for personal use or study, or other devices or services of a personal nature.

Title II of the ADA similarly states that personal services are not required.

In order to ensure that college students with learning disabilities are given a free appropriate public education, local education agencies are required to provide many services and aids of a personal nature to students with disabilities when they are enrolled in elementary and secondary schools. However, once students with disabilities graduate from a high school program or its equivalent, education institutions are no longer required to provide aids, devices, or services of a personal nature.

Postsecondary schools do not have to provide personal services relating to certain individual academic activities. Personal attendants and individually prescribed devices are the responsibility of the student who has a disability and not of the institution. For example, readers may be provided for classroom use but institutions are not required to provide readers for personal use or for help during individual study time.

Questions Commonly Asked by Postsecondary Schools and College Students with Learning Disabilities

Q: What are a college’s obligations to provide auxiliary aids for library study?
A: Libraries and some of their significant and basic materials must be made accessible by the recipient to students with disabilities. Students with disabilities must have the appropriate auxiliary aids needed to locate and obtain library resources. The college library’s basic index of holdings (whether formatted on-line or on index cards) must be accessible.

For example, a screen and keyboard (or card file) must be placed within reach of a student using a wheelchair. If a Braille index of holdings is not available for blind students, readers must be provided for necessary assistance.Articles and materials that are library holdings and are required for course work must be accessible to all students enrolled in that course. This means that if material is required for the class, then its text must be read for a blind student or provided in Braille or on tape.

A student’s actual study time and use of these articles are considered personal study time and the institution has no further obligation to provide additional auxiliary aids.

Q: What if an instructor objects to the use of an auxiliary or personal aid?
A: Sometimes postsecondary instructors may not be familiar with Section 504 or ADA requirements regarding the use of an auxiliary or personal aid in their classrooms. Most often, questions arise when a student uses a tape recorder. College teachers may believe recording lectures is an infringement upon their own or other students’ academic freedom, or constitutes copyright violation.The instructor may not forbid a student’s use of an aid if that prohibition limits the student’s participation in the school program. The Section 504 regulation states:

A recipient may not impose upon handicapped students other rules, such as the prohibition of tape recorders in classrooms or of dog guides in campus buildings, that have the effect of limiting the participation of handicapped students in the recipient’s education program or activity.

In order to allow a student with a disability the use of an effective aid and, at the same time, protect the instructor, the institution may require the student to sign an agreement so as not to infringe on a potential copyright or to limit freedom of speech.

Q: What if students with disabilities require auxiliary aids during an examination?
A: A student may need an auxiliary aid or service in order to successfully complete a course exam. This may mean that a student be allowed to give oral rather than written answers. It also may be possible for a student to present a tape containing the oral examination response. A test should ultimately measure a student’s achievements and not the extent of the disability.
Q: Can postsecondary institutions treat a foreign student with disabilities who needs auxiliary aids differently than American students?
A: No, an institution may not treat a foreign student who needs auxiliary aids differently than an American student. A postsecondary institution must provide to a foreign student with a disability the same type of auxiliary aids and services it would provide to an American student with a disability. Section 504 and the ADA require that the provision of services be based on a student’s disability and not on such other criteria as nationality.
Q: Are institutions responsible for providing auxiliary services to disabled students in filling out financial aid and student employment applications, or other forms of necessary paperwork?
A: Yes, an institution must provide services to disabled students who may need assistance in filling out aid applications or other forms. If the student requesting assistance is still in the process of being evaluated to determine eligibility for an auxiliary aid or service, help with this paperwork by the institution is mandated in the interim.
Q: Does a postsecondary institution have to provide auxiliary aids and services for a non-degree student?
A: Yes, students with disabilities who are auditing classes or who otherwise are not working for a degree must be provided auxiliary aids and services to the same extent as students who are in a degree-granting program.

For More Information

For more information on Section 504 and the ADA and their application to auxiliary aids and services for college students with learning disabilities, or to obtain additional assistance, see the list of OCR’s 12 enforcement offices containing the address and telephone number for the office that serves your area, or call 1-800-421-3481.

This publication is in the public domain. Authorization to reproduce it in whole or in part is granted. The publication’s citation should be: U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights, Auxiliary Aids and Services for Postsecondary Students with Disabilities: Higher Education’s Obligations Under Section 504 and Title II of the ADA,, Washington, D.C., 2011.

Jan 012013

Stanford Achievement Test VS Iowa Standardized Test – Which is best for kids with LDs?

Parents of Learning Abled Kids often wonder whether the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) or the Stanford Achievement test is the better choice for their child’s required annual standardized testing.

In addition to standardized test preparation for your child, you will want to consider the following information before picking one of the standardized tests.

Stanford Achievement Test VS Iowa Standardized Test : Timed Testing Differences

Timed testing can be a significant issue for children with slow processing or reading speeds.

The Stanford Achievement Test is technically untimed even though they include timing recommendations for their tests. The ability to administer the test as a UNtimed test helps with students who work very slowly. Since timing is not required for the Stanford Achievement Test, it can be beneficial to use if your child has a slow working speed, however there are drawbacks to using the Stanford test as well.

Conversely, the Iowa Standardized Test indicates it must be administered within guidelines for timing. Needless to say, being required to follow a timed protocol can be problematic for your child if he processes information slowly or reads slowly.

That said, the Riverside Publishing site, the publisher of the Iowa Standardized Test, does make mention of accommodations in their glossary. They also mention them in their explanations of interpretation for the results.  If your child has a comprehensive neuro-psychological evaluation documenting a very slow reading or processing speed, it would seem a reasonable accommodation to permit your child to have time-and-a-half or double time, depending upon the slowness of your child’s processing speed.

Differences in Accommodations for Testing : Stanford Achievement Test VS Iowa Standardized Test

Stanford Achievement Test

One of the aspects I like about the Stanford Achievement Test is their published accommodations guidelines. If you’d like to see what standard accommodations are permitted under a NORMAL administration for the Stanford Achievement Test, please refer to their accommodations document:

Using the Stanford accommodation guidelines helps a lot if your child needs some of the listed accommodations. The well-documented support for using accommodations with the Stanford Achievement Test is very much appreciated by parents of Learning Abled Kids.

I have been unable to find any documentation that provides information regarding accommodations that can be used for students with disabilities taking the Iowa Standardized Test on the publisher’s website. The Riverside site (, seems to ignore the need for information regarding accommodations for those with disabilities. This makes me less inclined to recommend the Iowa Standardized Test because procedures for testing with accommodations is not clearly documented.

Riverside’s website does say, “To the extent that the accommodations used with a student were chosen carefully and judged to be necessary, the anticipated effect is to reduce the impact of that student’s disability on the assessment process. That is, the student responses are like those we would expect the student to make if that student had no disability. Consequently, it seems reasonable to use that student’s scores in the same ways we would use the scores of all other students. The student’s answer document should be placed among the others for scoring, the student’s scores should be included with all others in group averages.”  [Ref: Scores from Special Test Administrations]

Stanford Achievement Test VS Iowa Standardized Test Administration Requirements

With both the Stanford and the Iowa test, you can test your own child in your home, which can be highly preferable for children with ADHD or who may be easily distracted by testing in an unfamiliar setting. Both tests are similar in this aspect of test administration.

The Stanford test also has an online test format offered through some providers. If your child prefers selecting answers on the computer over marking them in a booklet, the computer-based testing option might be your most viable choice. The test is administered by the test provider, so your child will have to take the exam under the provider’s testing guidelines.

Summary Comparison of the Iowa Standardized Test versus Stanford Achievement Test

I have used both tests. I’ve tested in each of the different formats/groupings. I have used the Iowa Standardized Test at home with just my kids and with other kids.  I’ve also tested using the Stanford Achievement Test in a large group in a church classroom. We also used the Stanford test at my home with a few additional children.

In each case, whichever test it was, it all worked well for us, but the Stanford Achievement Test large group testing was the least viable for my kids’ needs. With the larger group, while things went well with the testing, there were a couple of minor distractions that I believe affected the attention of all of the kids being tested at the time.

For children who are easily distracted, testing in the group environment can be more of an issue, particularly with young children. While some parents want their children to get accustomed to testing in groups, I think there is PLENTY of opportunity to test with groups through the PSAT and high school level testing of other types. High school AP testing, testing in any classes they may take, etc., will all prepare the kids for group testing for the ACT or SAT.

Whether you use the Stanford Achievement Test or ITBS, if you have other students join your children for testing, or you opt for group testing, then you pretty much have to test when scheduled rather than when your kids are up and ready to test.

As far as the tests themselves go, I liked the flow of the Iowa Standardized Test better than the Stanford Achievement Test. I like being able to easily complete each section at flexible times when my kids were physiologically ready for testing (they had good night’s sleep, were up and ready, no illness, no stress, etc.). That eliminated feeling stressed or having the excitement of others coming to test.

The Stanford used to require group testing to test your own kids, but they no longer have that requirement as of 2014. Thus, the Stanford is very similar and testing could be done when your child is ready if you are not using the online test version.

Stanford Achievement Test VS Iowa Standardized Test Conclusion

Thus, for any child in elementary or middle school, it doesn’t really matter whether you use the Iowa Standardized Test or Stanford.  I do like the fact that the Stanford provides information and guidelines for providing accommodations.

Lastly, in regard to administration of either test at home, you have to be careful to establish an interference-free testing environment. Turn off all of the ringers on the phones, put a note on your front door for anyone NOT to ring or knock.. Leave a notepad out there (if they want to leave a note). Ask them to quietly leave due to testing.

Also, if you have any dogs, it’s a good idea to tend to them before testing so they will be crated. Put the dogs as far away from the testing location as possible, so any sudden event won’t cause a lot of barking (we had that one year!!).

In the end, I think the Iowa Standardized Test and Stanford Achievement Test both are viable, but the Stanford seems more “disabilities friendly. As a parent, you do have to weigh the options in relation to your individual child’s personal needs to decide which is best. Don’t forget to check out How to Prepare Your Child for Standardized Testing too. Hope that helps! 😀